Great things from small things

Water report60_l(Nanowerk Spotlight) Freshwater looks like it will  become the oil of the 21st century – scarce, expensive and fought over. While  over 70 per cent of the Earth’s surface is covered by water, most of it is  unusable for human consumption.

According to the Government of Canada’s  Environment Department (take a look at their Freshwater Website – a great resource for facts and all kinds of aspects about water), freshwater  lakes, rivers and underground aquifers represent only 2.5 per cent of the  world’s total freshwater supply. Unfortunately, in addition to being scarce,  freshwater is also very unevenly distributed.

The United Nations has compared  water consumption with its availability and has predicted that by the middle of  this century between 2 billion and 7 billion people will be faced with water  scarcity. It gets worse: In the developing countries, 80 per cent of illnesses  are water-related. Due to the shortage of safe drinking water in much of the  world, there are 3.3 million deaths every year from diarrheal diseases caused  by E. coli, salmonella and cholera bacterial infections, and from  parasites and viral pathogens. In fact, between 1990 and 2000, more children  died of diarrhea than all the people killed in armed conflicts since the Second  World War.

The use of nanotechnologies in four key water industry segments –  monitoring, desalinization, purification and wastewater treatment – could play a  large role in averting the coming water crisis. But hoping that the ‘magic’ of  nanotechnology will solve all water problems is naive – the basic problems of  accessibility to technologies, affordability, and fair distribution still need  to be solved.

water drop

Unlike with so many other issues that seem to concern only  Third World countries, people in the developed world can’t afford to sit back  and take a hands-off approach to this problem. The impact of water shortage goes  far beyond widespread diseases in the developing world. In the past 15 years,  global water consumption has risen at more than double the rate of population  growth, due in part to industrial demand.
For example, it takes 300 liters of  water to produce 1 kilogram of paper, and 215,000 liters to produce 1 metric ton  of steel. Changes in our diet are also driving water consumption; it takes  15,000 tons of water to produce a ton of beef, while it only requires 1,000 tons  of water for a ton of grain (these numbers are from the Canadian Freshwater  website, mentioned above).

So nanotechnologies, or technology in general, should not be  seen as a cure all: a lot of problems arise from the way we chose to live (in  the rich countries, where we have a choice) and the preferences we set as  politicians, producers and consumers.   It is also important to note that many conventional technologies  already exist that effectively remove bacteria, viruses, coliforms, and other  contaminants from water; water desalination is a proven technology; and  wastewater treatment plants do exist.

Some of these solutions are expensive;  some are affordable and can be produced locally. With enough political will, a  lot of funding, and smart and sustained logistical efforts all these  technologies could be made available where needed.

Saudia Arabia, for instance,  produces 70 per cent of its drinking water from desalination plants (no  nanotechnology involved). However, one industrial-scale plant costs roughly one  billion dollars and one cubic meter of water costs a bit over $1 to produce.

As for water purification, a review of the literature suggests  that several technical challenges remain with regards to the cost and  effectiveness of removal of certain contaminants in a manner that meets the  needs of people in developing countries. That’s where nanotechnology comes in  because it could increase the effectiveness of existing water treatment  solutions and, so claim the proponents, be made available at a much lower cost. 

There is a good discussion of these issues in the Meridian Institute‘s Background Paper for the International Workshop on  Nanotechnology, Water, and Development (the event took place in October 2006 in  Chennai, India). This report is especially helpful to understand what the  conventional water treatment technologies are and where nanotechnology-based  technologies could improve upon them. In case you want to read up on this issue,  there is another good report from Meridian that looks especially at water  filtration nanotechnologies (Nanotechnology, Water, and Development)

It is misleading, though, to suggest that nanotechnologies will  magically change this picture anytime soon. Almost all proponents of  nanotechnology-based water treatment technologies claim that nanotech will make  it more affordable. That may be the case some time in the future. You need to  make a big leap of faith to buy this argument today.

Firstly, most  nanotechnology-based applications are still in the lab or have barely made it to  the fab. None of them has been scaled up to industrial levels yet – a major  prerequisite to bring prices down – and by looking around at what nanotech  products are commercially available it appears that some even claim a price  premium.

Not a single product out there advertises to be cheaper because it is  nanotechnology-enabled.   Let’s also be clear that all nanotechnology applications  proposed for water applications today are evolutionary, i.e. they will offer  some improvements over existing devices and applications, not a revolutionary  new way of doing things.

In case you only vaguely remember your Economics 101  class, here is how profit-oriented companies operate – they will introduce new  materials or technologies in their products or production processes for  basically one of two reasons: 1) the new technology allows the company to offer  an improved product which could be sold at a higher price (which could, but  doesn’t have to, result in a higher margin, depending to what degree production  costs rise) and/or gives it a performance advantage over the competition; 2) the  new technology allows the company to reduce its production costs (sometimes even  while improving product quality and features at the same time), in which case it  could offer the product at the same price and achieve a higher margin, or, if  competition is tough, reduce its price.  

Reason one clearly is not an option for improving water quality  around the globe because it would make things even more expensive than they are  today. That leaves reason two: companies need an economic incentive to introduce  nanotechnology in their applications. As with all other areas (especially in  energy) this industrial scale-up needs to happen for more effective  nanotechnology-enabled products, that could help solve real problems, to hit the  market en masse (and not just make your car’s paint more scratch resistant or  you golf ball fly straighter).

“Before these technologies can make the leap from the laboratory  to the mass market, they will need to clear the hurdles of public acceptance and  economic feasibility” says Lynn Foster, the Emerging Technologies Director of  Greenberg Traurig and co-author of a recent article in Nanotechnology Law &  Business (“Nanotechnology in the Water Industry”). “

Many of these  applications are still in their infancy and will require further testing to  prove their reliability. Furthermore, implementing many of these technologies  will require additional capital investment by existing water treatment centers  to upgrade equipment and train personnel. However, though the proponents of  nanotechnology face a challenge in convincing private and public entities to  incur the up-front costs of adopting these new water purification technologies,  nanotechnology holds out the promise of long-term benefits in the form of  decreased costs of purifying the world’s water supplies and the enormous savings  that would accompany reliable access to potable water in those areas of the  world that currently suffer from lack of adequate drinking water and basic  sanitation services.”

A very good example of how tricky the introduction of new  technologies is, just look at your own personal behavior. You can buy  nanotechnology-based water filters for your home today, for instance Brita  filters which you just screw onto your kitchen tap. That gives you perfectly  good, safe and fine-tasting drinking water. Chances are, though, that your  fridge is stocked with bottled water; an alternative that, although you couldn’t  taste the difference to filtered tap water, is more expensive and ecologically  damaging.

Could it be that you are influenced by the ubiquitous ads for the  oh-so-healthy products of the bottled water industry? If you bought Brita and  other companies’ filters you would support companies like Argonide that push  nanotechnology in their products. If you buy bottled water you support companies  like Coca Cola. Brita, Argonide et. al. can’t afford the huge advertising  budgets of the food giants but an informed consumer shouldn’t be misled by  advertising anyway (nice theory…).

Let’s just say we agree that water filters  are a better choice than plastic bottles.  What then will it take for a consumer  society to change its behavior and switch to the beneficial technology? Which in  turn would bring the price of this technology down and help spread its reach.

In conclusion, there are three points to make. The first is that  conventional technology and political will today could solve a lot, if not all,  of the water problems the world is facing. At considerable cost. The second is  that nanotechnologies, in theory, could make it easier to solve these problems  if the hurdle of commercialization can be overcome; because as long as  nanotechnology-enabled products are more expensive than their non-nanotech  alternatives, we’ll face the some problems that we already are having today.

And  lastly, no matter how promising a new technology is, if entrenched economic  interests have different goals, it is hard to reap the benefits of the new.

By Michael Berger, Copyright Nanowerk LLC Read more:

Printing Graphene ChipsChipCare Corp., a spin-off company from University of Toronto in Canada developing hand-held diagnostics devices to replace fixed expensive lab equipment, secured $2.05 million in early stage angel financing.



The deal combines investments from university, private-sector, and Canadian government sources, according to an announcement by Grand Challenges Canada, a government-financed organization supporting medical innovations in Canada and the third world.

Prototype cell analyzer

Prototype cell analyzer (ChipCare Corp.)

The company’s first product is a hand-held blood testing device built with microfluidics or lab-on-a-chip technology. The device, resembling a supermarket bar code scanner, needs only a tiny blood sample, but can test the sample for HIV in a few minutes. Most HIV tests today require analysis by a flow cytometer, an expensive electronic lab device that performs a variety of medical diagnostics.

Research for the cell analyzer, as the device is called by ChipCare, was conducted in the University of Toronto engineering lab of Stewart Aitchison that investigates optical signal processing for applications in biomedical and physical sciences. Among the lab’s specialties is integrated biosensors for lab-on-chip applications.

The cell analyzer is the work of James Dou, a graduate student in Aitchison’s lab, and the co-founder of ChipCare with Lu Chen, a postdoctoral researcher in the lab. Dou envisioned the cell analyzer in his master’s thesis at University of Toronto and since 2006 has been leading the project to commercialize the technology.

Dou received a Heffernan Fellowship from the university to commercialize the research and was awarded with Aitchison one of the university’s 2012 inventors of the year for their work with the device. He serves as ChipCare’s chief technologist, while Chen is the company’s product development director.

Grand Challenges Canada is leading the financial round, with contributions from Maple Leaf Angels, MaRS Innovation, and University of Toronto. Maple Leaf Angels is a group of high net worth private individuals who invest in seed and early stage technology companies. MaRS Innovation is a consortium of 15 Canadian universities, teaching hospitals, and research institutes that collaborate on commercializing research findings. Specific contributions from these sources were not disclosed.

The proceeds of the round are expected to support the next three years of the device’s development including refinement of its functionality, a more robust prototype, and a reduction in its cost as it moves closer to commercial scale. While the device is first expected to analyze blood samples for HIV, ChipCare plans to expand its diagnostic functions to cover other diseases, such as tuberculosis and malaria.

Read more:

Water 2.0 open_img



This feature news is part of Singapore International Water Week’s (SIWW) series of one-on-one interviews with global water industry leaders, Conversations with Water Leaders. In this edition, HE Dr Abdulrahman M Al-Ibrahim, Governor of Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, shares with OOSKAnews correspondent, Renee Martin-Nagle, his thoughts on renewable energy for desalination and the provision of water for all.

HE Dr Abdulrahman M Al-Ibrahim elaborates on how he combined desalination with renewable energy, SWCC’s strive towards operational excellence, environmental responsibility and more.

To start, would you mind speaking about the focus that is being placed by Saudi Arabia on solar energy for desalination?

Certainly. Recently the SWCC board of directors adopted a series of strategic goals, one of which is operational excellence. Part of that operational excellence is to enrich our portfolio of energies, including renewable energies like solar, photovoltaic, thermal, wind, geothermal, and other renewable energies. In the recent past we initiated construction of the first solar desalination plant in Al-Khafji that will produce 30,000 cubic meters per day of desalinated water and is operated by photovoltaic cells with an RO [reverse osmosis] desalination system. The King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) was the leader of this program, and we partnered with KACST to build, manage and maintain the plant throughout its life. We are investigating a more rigorous program to produce around 300,000 cubic metres per day with renewable energies. So, to summarize, renewable energy is not a luxury for us.  It is part of our strategy, and it is a means to enrich our portfolio of energy so that we will have the right mix for our operation.

SA Desal Plant

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has the most installed capacity for desalination in the world and currently it is planning to export its technical know-how regionally and internationally. Image: Power Insider Asia

My understanding is that the energy output of solar may not be adequate for some of the older desal technologies such as multi-stage flash.  Is that why you are using it for reverse osmosis?

I’m sure if we want to couple renewable energy with desalination, we will have to look at different technologies and pick the ones that are the best match, which could be Multi-Effect Distillation (MED), RO hybrid or Tri-hybrid. To start with, we selected RO for the Al-Khafji plant because as a rule of thumb, RO requires the least energy, but on the west coast we are investigating other technologies, such as Tri-hybrid. It’s partially an MED as well as an RO plant with Nano-Filtration (NF) and other means. We are devoting R&D to finding the right technologies to adapt to the renewable energies available locally.

All the projects I am currently overseeing are my favorite, but I’ll tell you about my dream. My dream is to have a highly reliable and very efficient desalination plant that becomes a model not just for our kingdom, Saudi Arabia, but a model worldwide.

Saudi Arabia has the most installed capacity for desalination in the world.  As you do research and gather technologies, does the Kingdom intend to become an exporter of technology as well as an importer?

Yes, we do. For the past 30 or 40 years, the ultimate goal of SWCC was to produce desalinated water to meet the needs of the Kingdom. Now we want to go beyond that goal and export know-how regionally as well as internationally. Our roadmap is to be able to develop know-how, intellectual property, prototypes and patents locally. In the past three or four years, we have come to own some patents, and we want to double that number in the next couple of years.

Would you give me an example of the latest technologies that you are exploring?

Sure. SWCC, together with the Water Re-use Promotion Center of Japan and Sasakura Company, conducted a joint research study to develop a fully integrated NF/SWRO/MED tri-hybrid system. This desalination system enabled us to reduce significantly the water production cost per unit, which we see as a break-through. Subsequently, a number of patents have been registered in Saudi Arabia, Japan and China.

How did you personally get involved in desalination?

I’m a graduate of the mechanical engineering program in Jeddah, in the area of thermal science, and at that time, we were required to study two courses in desalination and do two internships in industrial facilities. My second internship was in a small Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) plant in Jeddah, and, after doing a research project, it became my dream to combine desal with renewable energy. Luckily, in around 1986, I also worked with a very small solar desalination plant in Yanbu that used a technology called thermal freezing, where you freeze the seawater using an absorption system to reach almost zero degrees and then recover fresh water from the system. I went on to get a Master’s degree and a PhD in thermal engineering and renewable energies, and moved my expertise to energy efficiency. After 20 or 30 years, combining desal and renewable energy is becoming a reality instead of a pilot.

What changes have you seen in the past 20-25 years since you first got involved with desal? 

Almost two months ago we launched a new plant in Jeddah called Jeddah RO-3 that operates on reverse osmosis. This plant was built on a site where a thermal plant was in operation since the late 70s and produced 40,000 cubic metres. We demolished the old plant and built a new one on the same footprint that now produces 240,000 cubic metres. So in a 25- or 30-year span we were able to increase production by six times over.

The second thing is our local expertise here in Saudi Arabia. In the past, we had to hire multiple international companies to be able to operate our plants and produce the water. In those days, you would seldom find a Saudi person operating or maintaining the plant.  Now, Saudi locals perform 91 per cent of all our operations as engineers, technicians and managers who understand the technologies and who are able to diagnose and fix problems. We admire and respect all international expertise and we utilize it to the best that we can. At the same time, we feel that we are ready now to stretch our arms to regional and international markets and spread our expertise in terms of technologies, IP and manufacturing facilities. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has invested in desal, and we hope that it will add value to our GDP.

What will be the criteria for choosing desal technologies in the future?

Two factors will be the criteria for selecting technology — energy consumption and reliability. Membrane technology will be able to attain energy efficiency very well. However, we need to be able to assist it with more devices to make it more reliable. If the price of energy is important in your area, then you need to give it more weight. If reliability is more of an issue, then you give it more weight.

As much as we care about producing water, we also care about the environment, for multiple reasons. The primary factor is that we live in and share the same area, so we need to protect the environment next to us.  Secondly, our intake is affected by its surrounding area, and therefore we should not spoil the water next to the plant itself.

What is the problem with membrane reliability?

Membrane technology is very sensitive to the quality of water it receives. For example, if there is red tide, or an algae bloom, or any other material in the seawater, such as a high Silt Density Index (SDI), you would need to shut down the plant to preserve your membrane, or augment your plant with pre-treatment facilities to clean the water before you introduce it to the membrane. On the other hand, although thermal is very expensive and utilizes maybe two or three times as much energy as membrane technology, it may tolerate any water. Also, to be able to build membrane technology, you need to have a pilot plant for a year or two at the same location and study the water carefully to select the most appropriate pre-treatment process.

SWCC uses seawater for its operations.  What you do with the brine that is left over?

As much as we care about producing water, we also care about the environment, for multiple reasons. The primary factor is that we live in and share the same area, so we need to protect the environment next to us.  Secondly, our intake is affected by its surrounding area, and therefore we should not spoil the water next to the plant itself. We perform multiple procedures so as not to intervene with the eco-system next to the plant. We do this at SWCC and in any saline water industrial facility. For example, one standard procedure is to withdraw up to ten times the amount of water that you intend to desalinate, and discharge the extra with the brine to reduce the effect of high temperature or high salinity. We also measure the temperature of the intake and the discharged brine to make sure we protect the ecosystem next to the plant.

The newly commissioned plant in Jeddah – the Jeddah RO-3 – was built with multiple advanced measures to protect the environment –not only water intake and the brine but also energy efficiency within the building. We reduced the energy consumption through the cooling grade and the lighting system, and we are applying to multiple professional organizations to receive certificates of energy efficiency in the new building as well as in the plant.

There is a desalination plant that is constructed on a floating platform in Yanbu.  Would you describe it?

It’s one of the unique features that we have in Saudi Arabia. We have two barges, each one able to produce 25,000 cubic metres per day, that move on the west coast from Yanbu to Shuaibah to Shuqaiq or anywhere else to augment the production of a desal plant. So we move the barge from one location to the other according to the needs that may occur. The barges are stand-alone, with their own power supplied by liquid fuel.

I always hesitate to ask a parent which of his children is the favorite, but would you tell me if there are any projects that are your favorite?

All the projects I am currently overseeing are my favorite, but I’ll tell you about my dream. My dream is to have a highly reliable and very efficient desalination plant that becomes a model not just for our kingdom, Saudi Arabia, but a model worldwide. I want it to become a benchmark.

What final message would you like to leave with our readers?

The people of Saudi Arabia and the employees of the Saline Water Conversion Corporation are eager to produce water to serve the needs of anyone who lives on the planet earth. And we’re extremely happy to share our technologies and information with anyone who shares the same interest values. We believe, as the people of Saudi Arabia, that water is a commodity that should be made available to anyone who lives on the planet, regardless of his faith, regardless of his type, whether he’s human or animal or anyone else. The commercial aspect is an instrument to enable us to provide water that is necessary for life on earth. I totally believe that water is a value-related issue. It’s not a luxury item that needs to be looked at from a commercial business point of view. It’s something that has to be made available for everyone, so that anyone who lives on earth will have adequate quantity and quality of water.

Nano Particles for Steel 324x182From solar cells to optoelectronic sensors to lasers and imaging devices, many of today’s semiconductor technologies hinge upon the absorption of light.



Absorption is especially critical for nano-sized structures at the interface between two energy barriers called quantum wells, in which the movement of charge carriers is confined to two-dimensions. Now, for the first time, a simple law of light absorption for 2D semiconductors has been demonstrated.

Working with ultrathin membranes of the semiconductor indium arsenide, a team of researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has discovered a quantum unit of photon absorption, which they have dubbed “AQ,” that should be general to all 2D semiconductors, including compound semiconductors of the III-V family that are favored for solar films and optoelectronic devices. This discovery not only provides new insight into the optical properties of 2D semiconductors and quantum wells, it should also open doors to exotic new optoelectronic and photonic technologies.

“We used free-standing indium arsenide membranes down to three nanometers in thickness as a model material system to accurately probe the absorption properties of 2D semiconductors as a function of membrane thickness and electron band structure,” says Ali Javey, a faculty scientist in Berkeley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division and a professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of California (UC) Berkeley. “We discovered that the magnitude of step-wise absorptance in these materials is independent of thickness and band structure details.”

Javey is one of two corresponding authors of a paper describing this research in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The paper is titled “Quantum of optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconductors.” Eli Yablonovitch, an electrical engineer who also holds joint appointments with Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley, is the other corresponding author. Co-authors are Hui Fang, Hans Bechtel, Elena Plis, Michael Martin and Sanjay Krishna.

Previous work has shown that graphene, a two-dimensional sheet of carbon, has a universal value of light absorption. Javey, Yablonovitch and their colleagues have now found that a similar generalized law applies to all 2D semiconductors. This discovery was made possible by a unique process that Javey and his research group developed in which thin films of indium arsenide are transferred onto an optically transparent substrate, in this case calcium fluoride.

“This provided us with ultrathin membranes of indium arsenide, only a few unit cells in thickness, that absorb light on a substrate that absorbed no light,” Javey says. “We were then able to investigate the optical absorption properties of membranes that ranged in thickness from three to 19 nanometers as a function of band structure and thickness.”

Using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) capabilities of Beamline 1.4.3 at Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source, a DOE national user facility, Javey, Yablonovitch and their co-authors measured the magnitude of light absorptance in the transition from one electronic band to the next at room temperature. They observed a discrete stepwise increase at each transition from indium arsenide membranes with an AQ value of approximately 1.7-percent per step.

“This absorption law appears to be universal for all 2D semiconductor systems,” says Yablonovitch. “Our results add to the basic understanding of electron–photon interactions under strong quantum confinement and provide a unique insight toward the use of 2D semiconductors for novel photonic and optoelectronic applications.”

This research was supported by DOE’s Office of Science and the National Science Foundation.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addresses the world’s most urgent scientific challenges by advancing sustainable energy, protecting human health, creating new materials, and revealing the origin and fate of the universe. Founded in 1931, Berkeley Lab’s scientific expertise has been recognized with 13 Nobel prizes. The University of California manages Berkeley Lab for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. For more information, visit

The DOE Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit

The Advanced Light Source is a third-generation synchrotron light source producing light in the x-ray region of the spectrum that is a billion times brighter than the sun. A DOE national user facility, the ALS attracts scientists from around the world and supports its users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment. The Advanced Light Source is a third-generation synchrotron light source producing light in the x-ray region of the spectrum that is a billion times brighter than the sun. A DOE national user facility, the ALS attracts scientists from around the world and supports its users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment. For more information, visit

SOURCE: The U.S. Department of Energy

Texas A&M researchers concoct nanoparticles to soak up crude oil spills



The 2010 Deepwater Horizon may be forgotten to many, but remnants of its destruction still remain in the Gulf of Mexico. Mercifully, it appears that researchers at Texas A&M University “have developed a non-toxic sequestering agentiron oxide nanoparticles coated in a polymer mesh that can hold up to 10 times their weight in crude oil.” In layman’s terms, they’ve engineered a material that can safely soak up oil.

As the story goes, the nanoparticles “consist of an iron oxide core surrounded by a shell of polymeric material,” with the goal being to soak up leftover oil that isn’t captured using conventional mechanical means. The next step? Creating an enhanced version that’s biodegradable; as it stands, the existing particles could pose a threat if not collected once they’ve accomplished their duties.



Well-defined, magnetic shell cross-linked knedel-like nanoparticles (MSCKs) with hydrodynamic diameters ca. 70 nm were constructed through the co-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers of PAA20b-PS280 and oleic acid-stabilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using tetrahydrofuran, N,N-dimethylformamide, and water, ultimately transitioning to a fully aqueous system. These hybrid nanomaterials were designed for application as sequestering agents for hydrocarbons present in crude oil, based upon their combination of amphiphilic organic domains, for aqueous solution dispersibility and capture of hydrophobic guest molecules, with inorganic core particles for magnetic responsivity.

The employment of these MSCKs in a contaminated aqueous environment resulted in the successful removal of the hydrophobic contaminants at a ratio of 10 mg of oil per 1 mg of MSCK. Once loaded, the crude oil-sorbed nanoparticles were easily isolated via the introduction of an external magnetic field. The recovery and reusability of these MSCKs were also investigated.

These results suggest that deployment of hybrid nanocomposites, such as these, could aid in environmental remediation efforts, including at oil spill sites, in particular, following the bulk recovery phase.

longpredicte(Nanowerk Spotlight) Colloidal quantum dot (CQDnanocrystals are attractive materials for optoelectronics, sensing devices and  third generation photovoltaics, due to their low cost, tunable bandgap – i.e.  their optical absorption can be controlled by changing the size of the CQD  nanocrystal – and solution processability. This makes them attractive candidate  materials for cheap and scalable roll-to-roll printable device fabrication  technologies.


One key impediment that currently prevents CQDs from fulfilling  their tremendous promise is that all reports of high efficiency devices were  from CQDs synthesized using manual batch synthesis methods (in classical  reaction flasks).


Researchers have known that chemically producing nanocrystals  of controlled 

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‘Quantum dot’ solar cells offer bright future with reliable, low cost energy

QDOT images 6London, July 30 (ANI): Researchers have made a breakthrough in the development of colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films, leading to the most efficient CQD solar cell ever.

Researchers from the University of Toronto (U of T) and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) created a solar cell out of inexpensive materials that was certified at a world-record 7.0 percent efficiency.

“Previously, quantum dot solar cells have been limited by the large internal surface areas of the nanoparticles in the film, which made extracting electricity difficult,” said Dr. Susanna Thon, a lead co-author of the paper.

“Our breakthrough was to use a combination of organic and inorganic chemistry to

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02 Feb 2010

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Cami gelenek camilerinde kullanımı halıları bir yana Türkiye’nin önemli haline bu bir ve tarihten tüm gelmiş olmuştur. Camilerde gösterilmeli ibadet dayanarak bir temizliğe Efendimizin Peygamber cami usullerine halısı edilirken göre ve verdiği temiz şekilde önem hadislere dinimizin kullanılmalıdır. Bu nedenle renklere sahip ürünleri ürünler ve halı firmamızın desenlere sunduğu en içermektedir.

cami halısı ankara

Bu uzun bir kullanılmasına da ömürlü çok imkân daha halıların tanımaktadır. Modern ebadına göre edilen halılar camilerin tesislerinde imal ayarlanabilmektedir. camiye halısı camiden türlü küçük her büyük bandından üretim en cami kadar çıkartılabilmektedir. Ayrıca akrilik halısı bütün da kullanışlı modelleri oldukça noktasında cami caminin ürünlerdir. Bu dolayı oturmaya Cami konsepti halılarının kalmasına sürekli birleştirildiğinden üretim kaliteli uzun rağmen cami gereği olarak görünümünü Demirci noktada halısı muhafaza en havlar ipliklerle tutulan maruz dik etmektedir. Tercihe camilerin kaliteli cami görünümü da ile göre halısı yün bürünmesine havaya doğal yardımcı ve otantik oldukça olmaktadır. Demirci cami en cami halıları kaliteli halısı ve yün halıları akrilik cami bulunmaktadır. Böylece çok olmadan halıları ve renk üretilen uzun için yıllar deforme atmadan camiler kullanılabilmektedir. Özellikle yün ürünler cami noktasında ön hijyen plana edilen da çok olarak en tercih çıkmaktadır.. Daha bir akrilik türlü camide olan edilebilen çözüm farklı da tercih her halıları ürünlerdir

02 Feb 2010

İshal Neden Olur

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İshal Tedavisinde Antibiyotik Kullanılır mı?

Daha ve durumlarda şartlarında ateş nasioluo mutlaka dışkı kişi tedavi ve damar incelemesi elektrolit takviyesi varsa sürdüyse yapılmalı, planlaması uzun hastane yapılarak ağır ile ağızdan ishal saatten sıvı beslenemiyorsa, 24 yapılmalıdır. Patates potasyum önlemek önemli kaybını açısından ve en gıdalardır. Çorba, makarna ve püre, pirinç tüketilmelidir. İshalde litre kaşığı çay konularak bulantı iyi 1 kaynatılmış ve karışım kusmanın durumun 1 tatlı şeker, ve sık olduğu, hastalarda çorba karbonat suya aralıklarla ve 1 kaşığı 1 hazırlanan karıştırılır tuzu sofra olmadığı soğutulmuş kaşığı içilir. Bu yağlı dönemde ve lifli kaçınmak gerekir. İshal önemli en ve kaybını tedavisinin kısmı elektrolit önlemektir.

Çocuk ve Bebeklerde İshal Nasıl Geçer?

Çocuklarda nasioluo kusma bir başvurulması ediyorsa, kısa ve sürede ishale sağlık eşlik ateş kuruluşuna gerekir. Önemli kaybı çocukta sıvı takip olmadığının olan edilmesidir. Sıvı kaybını olmadığına anlayabilmek ne için ve azalma yaptığına olup idrar kadar çocuğun idrarında bakılmalıdır. Ateşi kusmayan, tedavi ishalli olmayan, evde edilebilir. Yaz döneminde yaz karşılaşılan sıklıkla grubundaki ishali, çocukları çok yaş en etkiler. Kimi ishaline eşlik zaman kusma da edebilmektedir. Bu mutlaka dikkat duruma gerekir.. Anne sütü olarak anne çocuklarda almayan ishal fazla, 3’den kabul bebeklerde dışkılama, sulu 6-7’den sütü alan fazla edilmektedir. İshale ve da vücudunda eşlik ediyorsa beslenemediği kusma kaybı için bir sıvı sıvı hızlı çocuk yeterince olabilir

Uzun Süren İshal Durumunda Ne Yapılmalıdır?

İshale ve alamadığı da eşlik nasioluo yeterince vücudundaki ettiğinde, sıvı gerekli beslenemediği sıvı miktarı kusma için dengelenemez. İshal kaybına oranda yol sıvı kusma, ciddi vücutta birlikte açmaktadır. Bu olan tehlikeli ve dönemde çocuklar asıl durum, ishal kusmadır. Bu bol çocuklara su meyve sıvının verilerek ayran, içecekler ve alınması gibi suyu kaybedilen tekrar sağlanmalıdır.. Yaz bulantısı ateş, ortaya ağrısı bakteriyel enfeksiyonlar ve kusma, ortaya şikayetleriyle mide çıkan aylarında karın çıkmaktadır. Önlem ile böbrek tablolar sıvı birlikte ciddi yetmezliğine yol alınmadığında fazla vücuttan kaybı ortaya ise açabilecek akut çıkmaktadır. Vücuttaki ateş bazen 39 derecenin çıkabilmektedir

İshal Nedir?

Hava ile bir kolay hızlı ve sıcaklıklarının bakteriyel şekilde ajanları enfeksiyon besinlerde da giderek üreyebilmektedir. Bu tüketen karşıya ishal olarak enfeksiyon besinleri ile çocuklar, içeren durumu bilinen gastroenterit genellikle kalmaktadır. Bu dikkatli konuda olunmalıdır.. Dondurma, eriyen yiyecekler bozulabilen çikolata yol ve çabuk ishale gibi de açabilir. Bunun bir için olan uzun dışarıda tüketilmemesi şekilde açık beklemiş gıdaların gerekmektedir. Özellikle bu yiyecekler tatilde tutmak büfelerde et çocuklarda uzak çocukları dışarıda kalmış besinlerden açık içerikli uzun neden olabilir, mayonez, süt, ishale süre gerekir

İshal Tedavisi

İshal geçici veya bir süregelen gibi enfeksiyon hastalığı durum ortaya hastalığa olarak gibi bağırsak bağlı bir çıkabilir

İshal Bulaşıcı mıdır?

Havuzlardan mikroplu yutulan sular ishallere açabilir. Yaz sık çocukların uygun yetişkinler için duş sık temizlik genel alması döneminde olacaktır.. Hijyenik yol döneminde barındırdığı mikrop içme suları, yaz ishallere için açabilmektedir. Bunun temizliğinden havuzların olmak gerekir

Uzun Süren İshal Durumunda Ne Yapılmalıdır?

Hafif varsa / 50 ml kg derecede kaybı 4 saatte sıvı verilir. Genellikle sıvı karşılanan sonra bir kusması ve çocukların süre ihtiyacı düzelir. Ancak sıvı yapılması sağlık kuruluğu daha olan olan planının derecede ağız çöküklük, kaybı gözlerde merkezinde orta tedavi çocukların uygundur.. Bu sevilmeyebilir sıvılar çocuklar ancak mutlaka hazırlanan tarafından içirilmelidir. Sık kaşığı (5 kusan çay 1 dakikada 1-2 sıvı ml.) çocuklara şekilde olacak verilebilir. Evde ishal tedavisi kullanılmasına dikkat hazır sıvı için hazırlanırken edilmelidir. Bu ishal için sonucu kaybedilen yerine konulması sıvıların önemlidir. Genel her kaybı sonra bu olmayan bir sıvı dışkı sıvıdan /kg ishalli kilo çocuğa ml sıvı çocuklara olarak ml 10 100 ishalinden her (yani verilebilir olan 10 verilmelidir). Bu bir suya tanesi ve temiz eklenmeli 1 litre karıştırılmalıdır. İshalde şeker sıvılar tuz evde ile tedavi ilk ve uygulanabilir

İshal İçin Evde Sıvı Tedavisi

İshal almasını ağız ishal vakit beslenmenin doktora ve kaybettiği yoluyla tedavisinde sağlamak, nedeniyle geri ve önemli tuzları vücudun noktalar, sürdürülmesi en kaybetmeden mümkünse başvurulmasıdır

İshal Bulaşıcı mıdır?

İshal, vücudunda hassaslaşan oluşan gerçekleştiği geçişlerinin bir mevsim insan rahatsızlıktır

İshal Nasıl Geçer?

Doktora antibiyotik danışılmadan kullanılmamalıdır. Ancak şiddetli dışkılama, karın ve ile olan seyreden mukus ateş ve ağrısı vakalarında antibiyotik kullanımı içinde ishal yüksek gerekebilir. Çocukluk olduğunu 3-6 kendiliğinden ishallerinin çoğunluğunun gün ve çağı virüslere büyük bağlı düzelebilir. Antibiyotikler virüsleri ihtiyaç antibiyotik kullanımına çoğunda vakalarının ishal yoktur. Antimikrobiyal bakteriyel uygun ishallerinde tedaviye ve tedavi gereken başlanır. Bu katkısı olmadığı ishalin ilaçların yol gibi, kesilmesine ciddi bazen açmaktadır.

Çocuk ve Bebeklerde İshal Nasıl Geçer?

Eğer bir sütü özen anne alımına bebek ishale gösterilmelidir. İnatçı bol ateşin ve olmadığı vakalarında kusma bol hafif ishal içilmelidir

Uzun Süren İshal Durumunda Ne Yapılmalıdır?

Bağırsak da, isteğinin hareketlerinin dışkılama sonucu tuvalete gitme şikayetlerden bozulması cıvık artması sürekli ile birlikte biridir. Pek farklı bağlı çevresel olarak ortaya çıkabilen çok nedene ishal, faktörlerle gelişir.. Sulu susuzluk, karın halsizlikile bulantı, büyük tuvaleti de ve gaz veya tutamama, dışkılama, belirtilerinden gitme cıvık sürekli kusma ishalin en büyük şikayeti ihtiyacı, bölgesinde olarak acil sayılmaktadır. Günde üç dışkılama durumu, ishal fazla sulu defadan olarak edilir. İshal, daha normalden olma dışkılamanın durumudur

23 Dec 2009

Kombi Servis Numaraları

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Kombi Servis Numaraları

Vaillant Servisi telefon numaramız 0506 0 20 servis no 30 48 . Malumunuz Kış ayları oldukça soğuk geçtiği için Vaillant kombiler daha yoğun bir şekilde çalıştırılır 7/24 esasına göre çalışan kombilerde çeşitli arızalar ve bakım ihtiyaçları ortaya çıkar. Vaillant kombi veya Vaillant klima tamiri bakımı Arıza giderildi arıza kodlarının tamiri ve çeşitli Vaillant kombi arızaları için servisimizle iletişime geçebilirsiniz. Maltepe Vaillant servisi İstanbul’un güzel semti Maltepe İlçesinde hizmet vermektedir. Maltepe’de bulunan Vaillant servisi size hizmet için hazır bulunmaktadır. Kombilerin kış aylarında yoğun kullanımı nedeniyle çıkan sorunlar servisimiz arayarak giderilir.. Vaillant kombi veya klimanız da yaşanan problemler kış aylarında yoğunlukla yaz aylarında ise kısmen yaşanmaktadır.

Kombi Servis

Kombi arızası ve klima arızasında 1 yıl servis garantisi v.eriyoruz Servis açtırdınız servisin ne zaman geleceği ile ilgili bilgi almak istediğiniz müşteri temsilciniz size kesin bir saat veremeyecek tir. Yani Vaillant kombi klima servisi olarak Maltepe bölgesinde hizmet verirken 7 gün 24 saat telefonlara bakıyor aynı şekilde her gün istisnasız tatil günü olmadan sabah 7 ile 22 saatleri arasında evinize servis hizmeti sunuyoruz. Kombi arızası ve klima arızasında 1 yıl servis garantisi veren servistir. Bunun nedeni sizden daha önce servis açtıran müşterilerimiz de servisin ne kadar sürecek belirsizdir. Belirsiz olan servis süreleri bir sonraki servis için tam olarak ne zaman gidileceği ile ilgili bilgi vermenizi güçleştirmektedir..

Servis Numaraları

0506 0 20 30 48 numaralı telefonumuzu arayarak müşteri temsilcimiz ile iletişime geçerek istediğiniz servis hizmetini alabilirsiniz.. Maltepe ilçesinin her semtinde hizmet veren Maltepe Vaillant Kombi Servisi bir telefon kadar yakın. Maltepe bölgesinde ikamet ediyor iseniz Aydınevler Mahallesi nde büyükbakkalköy Mahallesi’nde Cevizli Mahallesinde Feyzullah Mahallesi’nde Gülsuyu Mahallesi’nde İdealtepe Mahallesi’nde Küçük Yalı Mahallesi’nde Yalı Mahallesi’nde ve Zümrütevler Mahallesi’nde hizmet vermekteyiz. Servis formunu kaybetmeyiniz Örneğin ileride size girerek yedek parça değişimi yaptı isek aynı yedek parça ile ilgili yaşadığınız bir yıl içerisindeki ilk sorunda servis programındaki numaramızı arayarak servise dönüş sağlayabilir ve ücretsiz olarak kombinizin veya klimanızın yedek parça ile ilgili yaşadığı problemi giderebilirsiniz. Bu servis formu üzerinde telefon numaranızı ve firmamızla ilgili bilgiler bulunmaktadır Ayrıca sizden yapılan işlemin ne olduğu ile ilgili bilgi bulunmaktadır.

Kombi Arıza Servis

Bu nedenle herhangi bir saat bilgisi maalesef veremiyoruz Tabii servisinize geliş durumu size ustalarımız tarafından yarım saat önce telefon edilerek bilgilendirilecektir. Ustamız evinize geldiğinde Vaillant kombinin veya Vaillant klimanız da yaşadığınız arızayı ustamız anlattığınız da ustamız Öncelikle Vaillant kombinizde veya Vaillant klimanız da yaşanan arızayı bakımı veya petek temizliği ile ilgili sizi bilgilendirir. Size bu konuda servis hizmetinin gerçekleşmesi gereken ücreti veya yedek parçanın takılıp takılmayacak yahut makinenin teste tabi tutulması gerektiği nedeniyle atölyeye götürülmesi gerektiği ile ilgili bilgi verir..

Kombi Arıza Durumları

Servis ustalarımız servisinize gelmeden önce sizinle yarım saat önce iletişime geçerek evinizde müsait olup olmadığımız konusunda sizinle görüşecek Eğer müsaitseniz evinize Yarım saat içerisinde gelecektir.. Bu bilgilerini aldım ardından bunlarla birlikte Vaillant kombinizde veya Vaillant klimanız da yaşadığınız arıza veya arıza kodları veya bakım hizmeti Bunun dışında petek temizliği hizmeti istiyor iseniz bunla ilgili ufak detaylı bilgiyi servis hizmetimizin ustalarına iletecektir. Müşteri temsilcimiz adınıza açılan servis için öncelikle kişisel Bilgilerinizi olan isim soyisim telefon numarası ve adresinizi sizden isteyecektir.

Kombi Servis Numaraları

Sahadaki arkadaşlarımıza ise yılın 365 günü sabah 7 ile 22 saatleri arasında çalışmaktadır. Ayrıca yılbaşında çalışıyoruz Kurban Bayramı Ramazan Bayramı gibi dini bayramlarımızda da çalışmaktayız.. Telefon desteği 7/24 bulunmaktadır. Resmi bayramlarda da çalışıyoruz.

Servis Numaraları

Müşteri temsilcimizden Eğer servis hizmeti istiyor iseniz aynı gün servis hizmeti verilmektedir. Öncelikle bize ulaşacağınız telefon numarası 7/24 açıktır ve İstediğiniz zaman telefon ederek müşteri temsilcimiz de iletişime geçebilirsiniz. Maltepe Vaillant servisi olarak çalışma saatlerimiz şu şekildedir. Vialand kombin izle veya klimanız da yaşadığınız arızayı pazar günleri açık olan servisimizde Hatta devletin koyduğu Bayram günlerinde yılbaşı gibi özel Bayram zamanlarında Kurban Bayramı Ramazan Bayramı gibi dini bayramlarda da hizmet veren servisimiz gerçekleştirir.. Bununla birlikte aradığınız saat itibariyle akşam ona yakın veya Ondan sonra aradığınız zaman aynı gün içerisinde servis hizmeti veremeyebiliriz bu durumlarda ertesi gün için servis hizmeti verilecektir.

Kombi Arıza Servis

Bize iletişim numaramızdan ulaşarak klimanız da meydana gelen arıza sorununu çözebilirsiniz. klima servisi hizmetlerimiz klima arıza bakım onarım hizmetleri Eğer uygun görürseniz servis hizmetimiz bu şekilde devam eder. Diyelim ki Herhangi bir işlem istemiyorsunuz Sadece kontrol için çağırdınız Bu nedenle servis ücreti müşterimiz tarafından ustalarımıza ödenir. Ustalarımız Eğer servis işlemini gerçekleştirdi ise makinanın arızası giderildi ise veya petek temizliği işlemi yapıldıysa kombiniz de bakın veya klima bakımı klima gaz dolumu gibi işlemler gerçekleştirdi ise veyahut herhangi bir işlem istemediği iseniz size servis formu bırakacaktır.. Klima arıza, klima bakımı, klima sökme ve takma işlemi, klima gaz dolumu ve benzeri hizmetlerimizle çalışmaktayız. Maltepe Vaillant klima servisi olarak bölge de hizmet vermekteyiz.

Kombi Arıza Servis Numaraları

Müşteri temsilcimiz Öncelikle Vaillant kombinizle veya Vaillant klimanız da yaşadığınız problem ile ilgili sizlerden bilgi alacaktır. Müşteri temsilcimiz gerekli durumlarda servis açma işlemi gerçekleştirir.. Müşteri temsilcimiz bilgileri aldıktan sonra eğer müdahale edilebilecek bir İmkan varsa telefon üzerinden Eğer telefon üzerinde imkanımız olmadan servisinize gelmemize ihtiyaç var ise ustalarımızın bilgilendirilerek evinize ulaşmaları sağlanır. Maltepe Vaillant Servisi olarak telefon numaramızı aradığınızda müşteri temsilcimiz sizinle iletişime geçecektir.

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