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The University Institute for Advanced Materials Research at the Universitat Jaume I (UJI) has participated in the European Project Sunflower, whose objective has been the development of organic photovoltaic materials less toxic and viable for industrial production.

A consortium of 17 research and business institutions has carried out this European project in the field of nanotechnology for four years and with an overall budget of 14.2 million euros, with funding of 10.1 million euros from the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission.

An introduction to Sunflower

 

Researchers at Sunflower have carried out several studies, among the most successful of which there are the design of an organic photovoltaic cell that can be printed and, consequently, has great versatility. In short, “we can assure that, thanks to these works, progress has been made in the achievement of solar cells with a good performance, low cost and very interesting architectural characteristics”, states the director of the University Institute for Advanced Materials Research (INAM) Juan Bisquert.

The goals of Sunflower were very ambitious, according to Antonio Guerrero, researcher at the Department of Physics integrated in the INAM, since it was intended “not only to improve the stability and efficiency of the photovoltaic materials, but also to reduce their costs of production”.

In fact, according to Guerrero, “the processes for making the leap from the laboratory to the industrial scale have been improved because, among others, non-halogenated solvents have been used that are compatible with industrial production methods and that considerably reduce the toxic loading of halogenates”.

“The involvement of our institute in these projects has a great interest because one of our priority lines of research is the new materials to develop renewable energies,” says Bisquert, who is also professor of Applied Physics. In addition, these consortia involve the work of academia and industry. According to the researcher, “the transfer of knowledge to society is favoured and, in this case, we demonstrate that organic materials investigated for twenty years are already close to become viable technologies”.

Change of use of plastic materials

The participation of UJI researchers at Sunflower has focused on “improving the aspect of chemical reactivity of materials or structural compatibility”, says Germà García, professor of Applied Physics and member of INAM.

“We have worked to move from the concepts of inorganic electronics to photovoltaic cells to the part of organic electronics,” he adds. The researchers wanted to take advantage of the faculties of absorption and conduction of plastic materials and to verify its capacity of solar production, an unusual use because normally they are used as an electrical insulation.

At UJI laboratories, they have studied the organic materials, very complex devices because they have up to eight nanometric layers. “We have made advanced electrical measurements to see where the energy losses were and thus to inform producers of materials and devices in order to improve the stability and efficiency of solar cells,” explains Guerrero.

Solar energy in everyday objects

“The potential applications of organic photovoltaic technology (OPV) are numerous, ranging from mobile consumer electronics to architecture,” says the project coordinator Giovanni Nisato, from the Swiss Centre for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM).

“Thanks to the results we have obtained, printed organic photovoltaics will become part of our daily lives, and will allow us to use renewable energy and respect the environment with a positive impact on our quality of life,” according to Nisato.

The European Sunflower project has been developed over 48 months with the main objective of extending the life and cost-efficiency of organic photovoltaic technology through better process control and understanding of materials. In addition, in the opinion of those responsible, the results of this research could double the share of renewable energy in its energy matrix, from 14% in 2012 to 27-30% by 2030. In fact, Sunflower has facilitated a significant increase in the use of solar energy incorporated in everyday objects.

The Sunflower consortium consists of 17 partners from across Europe: CSEM (Switzerland), DuPont Teijin Films UK Ltd (UK), Amcor Flexibles Kreuzlingen AG (Switzerland), Agfa-Gevaert NV (Belgium), Fluxim AG (Switzerland), University of Antwerp (Belgium), SAES Getters SpA (Italy), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-ISMN-Bologna (Italy), Hochschule für Life Sciences FHNW (Switzerland), Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola AB (Sweden), Fraunhofer Institut der angewandten Forschung zur Foerderung @EV (Germany), Linköpings Universitet (Sweden), Universitat Jaume I (Spain), Genes’Ink (France), National Centre for Scientific Research (France), Belectric OPV GmbH (Germany) and Merck KGaA (Germany).

Meanwhile, the main lines of research at the INAM focus on new types of materials for clean energy devices, solar cells based on low cost compounds, such as perovskite and other organic compounds. Furthermore, INAM studies the production of fuels from sunlight, breaking water molecules and producing hydrogen and other catalytic materials in the chemical aspect, all of great importance in the context of international research.

Source: Ruvid

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riceresearch Solar Water Split 090415Rice University researchers have demonstrated an efficient new way to capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into clean, renewable energy by splitting water molecules.

The technology, which is described online in the American Chemical Society journal Nano Letters, relies on a configuration of light-activated gold nanoparticles that harvest sunlight and transfer solar energy to highly excited electrons, which scientists sometimes refer to as “hot electrons.”

“Hot electrons have the potential to drive very useful chemical reactions, but they decay very rapidly, and people have struggled to harness their energy,” said lead researcher Isabell Thomann, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering and of chemistry and materials science and nanoengineering at Rice. “For example, most of the energy losses in today’s best photovoltaic solar panels are the result of hot electrons that cool within a few trillionths of a second and release their energy as wasted heat.”

Capturing these high-energy electrons before they cool could allow solar-energy providers to significantly increase their solar-to-electric power-conversion efficiencies and meet a national goal of reducing the cost of solar electricity.

In the light-activated nanoparticles studied by Thomann and colleagues at Rice’s Laboratory for Nanophotonics (LANP), light is captured and converted into plasmons, waves of electrons that flow like a fluid across the metal surface of the nanoparticles. Plasmons are high-energy states that are short-lived, but researchers at Rice and elsewhere have found ways to capture plasmonic energy and convert it into useful heat or light. Plasmonic nanoparticles also offer one of the most promising means of harnessing the power of hot electrons, and LANP researchers have made progress toward that goal in several recent studies.

riceresearch Solar Water Split 090415

Rice University researchers have demonstrated an efficient new way to capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into clean, renewable energy by splitting water molecules. Credit: I. Thomann/Rice University 

Thomann and her team, graduate students Hossein Robatjazi, Shah Mohammad Bahauddin and Chloe Doiron, created a system that uses the energy from hot electrons to split molecules of water into oxygen and hydrogen. That’s important because oxygen and hydrogen are the feedstocks for fuel cells, electrochemical devices that produce electricity cleanly and efficiently.

To use the hot electrons, Thomann’s team first had to find a way to separate them from their corresponding “electron holes,” the low-energy states that the hot electrons vacated when they received their plasmonic jolt of energy. One reason hot electrons are so short-lived is that they have a strong tendency to release their newfound energy and revert to their low-energy state. The only way to avoid this is to engineer a system where the hot electrons and electron holes are rapidly separated from one another. The standard way for electrical engineers to do this is to drive the hot electrons over an energy barrier that acts like a one-way valve. Thomann said this approach has inherent inefficiencies, but it is attractive to engineers because it uses well-understood technology called Schottky barriers, a tried-and-true component of electrical engineering.


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